“Lit shots” which is what modern games like Star Trek, GOTG, Aerosmith, Kiss. There might be a better way to generalize those, but I don’t think they’re really covered by your list.
That said, i think this exercise would only serve to confuse the terminology for beginners.
In my mind, a mode tends to be something that has to be explicitly started or selected, and will have explicit objectives/jackpots and/or explicit completion. In AFM, Total Annihilation is a mode, but the hurry-up from completing the right ramp is not a mode. Collecting weapons in Deadpool is not a mode, nor is earning extra ball from combos in Batman 66, these are objectives. The power jackpots in Iron Maiden are not modes, but Cyborg Multiball is.
One of the earliest modes that comes to mind for me (outside of multiballs, which are frequently the only “mode” on solid state games until the 90s) is Reflex on Dr Dude. To qualify the mode you hit the white stand ups, to start the mode you hit the left saucer. To complete the mode you have to hit 1-2-3 in the time limit.
Gottlieb’s Deadly Weapon also has a mode where you are supposed to hit the police cars in specific order.
Compare that to Taxi, where in my opinion the only “mode” is multiball. Collecting all passengers to get the jackpot isn’t a mode, it’s just the objective of the game.
Super Cellar on Whirlwind may be a mode, but the awards along the way are not, except for Quick Multiball. Regular multiball is the other mode.